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Components of GIS

GIS Component is a main function to perform geospatial analysis. A geographic information integrates hardware, software, data capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information.

The main 5 key components of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are:

  1. Hardware
  2. Software
  3. Data
  4. User
  5. Procedure
Components of GIS


Hardware is the computer system on which a operate GIS software. It is attached to a disk drive storage unit, used for storing data and runs program.

The Main Hardware components are:

  • Motherboard
  • Processor
  • RAM
  • Hard Disk
  • Graphics
  • Monitor
  • Printer


GIS software is a main functions to recearch, analyze, and display geographic information. GIS Tools helps to query, edit, run and display GIS data. Some GIS softwares are;

The Software components are:


The most important component of GIS is the Data. A GIS will integrate spatial data with other data resources and can even use a DBMS. GIS data is combination of spatial and tabular data or Attribute Data. Spatial can be Vector and Raster.


People are user of Geographic Information System, they can be handle all of the tasks in GIS software. Users can maintain to design and technical specification. It has limited value without the people who manage the system and develop plans for applying it to real world problems. GIS user are called GIS Analyst or Engineer.


Procedure more related to the management aspect of GIS. It’s referred to lines of reporting, control points, and other mechanism for ensuring the high quality of GIS. A successful GIS operates which are the models and operating practices unique, well-designed and business rules to each organization. The procedures used to input, analyze, and query data determine the quality and validity of the final product.

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