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Vector Data & Raster Data

Vector Data

A Vector data feature its represent shape using Geometry. The geometry is made up of one or more interconnected vertices. A vertex describes a position in space using an X, Y and optionally Z axis. Geometries which have vertices with a Z axis are often referred to as 3D since they describe height or depth at each vertex, but not both.

Vector Database is simply XY coordinates. Generally, they are a Latitude and Longitude value. The Vector data represents are points, lines, and polygons.

Raster Data

Raster data represent real world data, within the GIS environment. Its consists of a matrix of cells (pixels) organized into rows and columns (grid) where each cell contains a value representing information. Raster database represents continuous data such as Elevation, Slope, Surface.

Raster Database are Digital Aerial Photographs, Satellites imagery, Digital pictures, or even scanned Maps.

Vector Data vs Raster Data

Raster Data

  • Grid and cells
  • For continuous data such as elevation, slope, surfaces
Raster data

Vector Data

  • A series of x,y coordinates
  • For discrete data represented as points, lines, polygons
Vector data
Difference Between Raster Data vs Vector Data

Raster Data

Vector Data

  • Easy and efficient overlaying
  • Compatible with remote sensing imagery
  • Efficient to represents continuous data
  • Simple data structure
  • Smaller file size
  • Editing is very Easy
  • Proper identity for discrete objects, like point, line or polygon
  • Efficient Topological relationship
  • Accurate projection transformation
  • Difficult overlay operations
  • Not Compatible with remote sensing imagery
  • That is Not proper represents continuous data
  • Complex data structure
  • Larger file size
  • Difficult to edit
  • It’s a pixel series, so not accurate identity the objects
  • Did not build Topological relationship
  • Inefficient projection transformation

Raster & Vector File Format

Raster File Formats
File FormatsFull Form
BMPBit Map Image
ECWEnhanced Compression Wavelet
JPEG(JPG)Joint Photographic Experts Group
PCXPersonal Computer Exchange
PNGPortable Network Graphics
TIFFTagged Image File Format
GIFGraphics Interchange Format
PICTImage Originator Apple Computer
RLCRun Length Compressed
IGSImage in Grayscale
GEOSPOTSpot Image Corp.(Georeferenced Image)
GEOTIFFGeoreferenced Tiff Image
MRSIDMultiresolution Seamless Image Database
ExifExchangeable Image File Format
PSDAdobe PhotoShop Document
ADRGArc Digitized Raster Graphics
SDTSSpatial Data Transfer Standard
IMGErdas Imagine Image
CALSComputer-aided Acquisition Logistics and support
TGA(TARGA)A Simple run length encoded image format
Vector File Formats
File FormatsFull Form
E00Arc Export
CGMComputer Graphics Metafile
DWGAutoCAD Drawing file
DXFData Interchange File
HPGLHewlett Packard Graphic Language
MDBPersonal Geodatabase
MIF/MIDMapinfo Data Transfer Files
SVGScalable Vector Graphics
ODGOpenDocument Graphics
DGNMicroStation Design File
SDTSSpatial Data Transfer System
TIGERTopological Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing
VPFVector Product Format
VMLVector Markup Language
HVIFHaiku Vector Icon Format
AMFAdditive Manufacturing File Format

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