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Proximity Analysis

What is Proximity Analysis

Proximity analysis determines which pixels of a layer are located at specified distances from pixels in a certain class or classes. A new thematic layer is created, which is categorized by the distance of each pixel from specified classes of the input layer. This new file then becomes a new layer of the database and provides a Buffer zone around the specified class or classes.

Proximity Analysis- buffer

Proximity Analysis Toolset ArcGIS

The Proximity toolset contains tools that are used to determine the proximity of features within one or more feature classes or between two Feature classes.

ToolDescription
BufferCreates buffer polygons around input features to a specified distance.
Create Thiessen PolygonsCreates Thiessen polygons from point features. Thiessen polygon is closer to its associated point than to any other point input feature.
Generate Near TableGenerate Near Table writes results to a new stand-alone table and supports finding more than one near feature.
Graphic BufferA number of cartographic shapes are available for buffer ends (caps) and corners (joins) when the buffer is generated around the feature.
Multiple Ring BufferThese buffers can optionally be merged and dissolved using the buffer distance values to create non-overlapping buffers.
NearCalculates distance and additional proximity information between the input features and the closest feature in another layer or feature class.
Point DistanceDetermines the distances from input point features to all points in the near features within a specified search radius.
Polygon NeighborsCreates a table with statistics based on polygon contiguity (overlaps, coincident edges, or nodes).

Proximity Analysis Tool

Proximity analysis tools can be divided into two categories depending on the type of input the tool accepts: Features and Rasters.

Proximity Tools

Raster Distance Tools
ToolToolsetDescription
Euclidean DistanceSpatial Analyst/DistanceCalculates the distance to the nearest source for each cell.
Euclidean AllocationSpatial Analyst/DistanceGives each cell the identifier of the closest source.
Euclidean DirectionSpatial Analyst/DistanceCalculates the direction to the nearest source for each cell.
Cost DistanceSpatial Analyst/DistanceCalculates the distance to the nearest source for each cell, minimizing cost specified in a cost surface.
Cost AllocationSpatial Analyst/DistanceGives each cell the identifier of the closest source, minimizing cost specified in a cost surface.
Cost PathSpatial Analyst/DistanceCalculates the least-cost path from a source to a destination, minimizing cost specified in a cost surface.
Cost Back LinkSpatial Analyst/DistanceIdentifies for each cell the neighboring cell that is on the least-cost path from a source to a destination, minimizing cost specified in a cost surface.
Path DistanceSpatial Analyst/DistanceCalculates the distance to the nearest source for each cell, minimizing horizontal cost specified in a cost surface, as well as the terrain-based costs of surface distance and vertical travel difficulty specified by a terrain raster and vertical cost parameters.
Path Distance AllocationSpatial Analyst/DistanceGives each cell the identifier of the closest source, minimizing horizontal cost specified in a cost surface, as well as the terrain-based costs of surface distance and vertical travel difficulty specified by a terrain raster and vertical cost parameters.
Path Distance Back LinkSpatial Analyst/DistanceIdentifies for each cell the neighboring cell that is on the least-cost path from a source to a destination, minimizing horizontal cost specified in a cost surface, as well as the terrain-based costs of surface distance and vertical travel difficulty specified by a terrain raster and vertical cost parameters.
CorridorSpatial Analyst/DistanceCalculates the sum of accumulative cost for two input cost distance rasters. The cells below a given threshold value define an area, or corridor, between sources where the two costs are minimized.
Surface Length3D Analyst/Functional SurfaceCalculates the length of line features across a surface, accounting for terrain.
Vector Distance Tools
ToolToolsetDescription
BufferAnalysis toolbox/ProximityCreates new feature data with feature boundaries at a specified distance from input features
NearAnalysis toolbox/ProximityAdds attribute fields to a point feature class containing distance, feature identifier, angle, and coordinates of the nearest point or line feature
Select By LocationData Management toolbox/Layers and Table ViewsSelects features from a target feature class within a given distance of (or using other spatial relationships) the input features
Create Thiessen PolygonsAnalysis toolbox/ProximityCreates polygons of the areas closest to each feature for a set of input features
Make Closest Facility LayerNetwork Analyst/AnalysisSets analysis parameters to find the closest location or set of locations on a network to another location or set of locations
Make Service Area LayerNetwork Analyst/AnalysisSets analysis parameters to find polygons that define the area within a given distance along a network in all directions from one or more locations
Make Route LayerNetwork Analyst/AnalysisSets analysis parameters to find the shortest path among a set of points
Make OD Cost Matrix LayerNetwork Analyst/AnalysisSets analysis parameters to create a matrix of network distances among two sets of points

How to Open Proximity Analysis Tool in ArcGIS

You are already open ArcMap in your Ststem;

Open ArcToolbox, go to Analysis Tools > Proximity

Open Proximity Analysis Tool in ArcGIS