File Format of Spatial Data
What is a File Format
The File format of spatial data is the layout and content of data in a file. It can be defined as a way to store and organize data in such a way that it can be understood by an end-user or another software program.
A professional GIS programmer will use formats that are optimized for speed and storage. They will also need to know how to convert various different spatial data formats to other formats, such as from vector (e.g., Shapefiles) to raster (e.g., TIFFs).
A GIS files is a standard of encoding geographical information into a computer file that is Raster and Vector File.
Vector Data is simply XY coordinates. Generally, they are a latitude and longitude value.
Raster File Format
|File Formats||Full Form|
|BMP||Bit Map Image|
|ECW||Enhanced Compression Wavelet|
|JPEG(JPG)||Joint Photographic Experts Group|
|PCX||Personal Computer EXchange|
|PNG||Portable Network Graphics|
|TIFF||Tagged Image File Format|
|GIF||Graphics Interchange Format|
|PICT||Image Originator Apple Computer|
|RLC||Run Length Compressed|
|IGS||Image in Grayscale|
|GEOSPOT||Spot Image Corp.(Georeferenced Image)|
|GEOTIFF||Georeferenced Tiff Image|
|MRSID||Multiresolution Seamless Image Database|
|Exif||Exchangeable Image File Format|
|PSD||Adobe PhotoShop Document|
|ADRG||Arc Digitized Raster Graphics|
|SDTS||Spatial Data Transfer Standard|
|IMG||Erdas Imagine Image|
|CALS||Computer-aided Acquisition Logistics and support|
|TGA(TARGA)||A Simple run length encoded image format|
Vector File Format
|File Formats||Full Form|
|CGM||Computer Graphics Metafile|
|DWG||AutoCAD Drawing file|
|DXF||Data Interchange File|
|HPGL||Hewlett Packard Graphic Language|
|MIF/MID||Mapinfo Data Transfer Files|
|SVG||Scalable Vector Graphics|
|DGN||MicroStation Design File|
|SDTS||Spatial Data Transfer System|
|TIGER||Topological Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing|
|VPF||Vector Product Format|
|VML||Vector Markup Language|
|HVIF||Haiku Vector Icon Format|
|AMF||Additive Manufacturing File Format|
Difference Raster Data & Vector Data
- Easy and efficient overlaying
- Compitable with remote sensing imagery
- Efficient to represents continuous data
- Simple data structure
- Smaller file size
- Editing is very Easy
- Proper identity for discrete objects, like point, line or polygon
- Efficient Topological relationship
- Accurate projection transformation
- Larger file size
- Difficult to edit
- It’s a pixel series, so not accurate identity the objects
- D’nt build Topological relationship
- Inefficient projection transformation
- Difficult overlay operations
- Not Compitable with remote sensing imagery
- That is Not proper represents continuous data
- Complex data structure
Which Format for Spatial Data is the Best?
GIS stands for Geographic Information System, and is a subset of spatial data. The most popular formats are ESRI Shapefile, GeoTIFF, MapInfo TAB format, Erdas Imagine Image File Format(EIF), Geopackage(GPKG).
GeoTIFF is the most popular format used in GIS because it’s more versatile than other file types.
MapInfo TAB format is only used by MapInfo software which is not very common anymore so GeoTIFF or Shapefile are better options.
Geopackages are designed to store spatial data.