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GIS Database Management System

What is Database

A database is an organized collection of data, so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. For example consider the names, contact numbers, addresses, and more.

You may have recorded this data in a indexed address book, or stored in a personal computer using different softwares, such as; Microsoft Access, DBASE IV.

Database Properties

  • A database represents some aspect of the real world, sometime called the miniworld or the Universe of Discourse (UoD).
  • A database is a logically coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning. A random collection of different data can not correctly be refered to as a database.
  • A database is designed, built and populated with data for a specific purpose.

What is Database Management System

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a collection of programs that enable users to create and maintain a database. Database and DBMS software together called Database system. The examples of Database system are; Microsoft Office Access, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL etc.

The DBMS is a general purpose software system that ficilitates the process of defining, constructing, and manipulating databases for verious applications.

Database Management System in GIS

A GIS database or DBMS includes data about the spatial locations and shapes of geographic features recorded as points, lines, areas, pixels, grid cells, or TINs, as well as their attributes.

Data Types in DBMS

DBMS data types map to access ArcGIS data types:

ArcGIS data typeAccess data type
OBJECTIDLong Integer
SHORT INTEGERInteger
LONG INTEGERLong Integer
FLOATSingle
DOUBLEDouble
TEXTText
DATEDate/Time
BLOBOLE Object*
GUIDNumber
GEOMETRYOLE Object*
RASTERLong Integer

DBMS data types supported in ArcGIS

Advantages of DBMS

  • Controlling Redundancy
  • Enforcing integrity constraints
  • Restricting unauthorized access
  • Providing multiple user interface
  • Representing complex relationships among data
  • Database administrators
  • Database designers
  • Data backup and recovery
  • System analysts and application programming
  • End user

Differences between DBMS and RDBMS

DBMSRDBMS
DBMS applications store data as file.RDBMS applications store data in a tabular form.
DBMS data generally stored in either a hierarchical form or a navigational form.RDBMS have an identifier called primary key and the data values are stored in the form of tables.
Normalization is not present in DBMS.Normalization is present in RDBMS.
DBMS uses file system to store data, so there will be no relation between the tables.RDBMS, data values are stored in the form of tables, so a relationship between these data values will be stored in the form of a table as well.
DBMS has to provide some uniform methods to access the stored information.RDBMS system supports a tabular structure of the data and a relationship between them to access the stored information.
DBMS does not support distributed database.RDBMS supports distributed database.
DBMS is meant to be for small organization and deal with small data. it supports single user.RDBMS is designed to handle large amount of data. it supports multiple users.
Example: Oracle, SQL Server.Example: mysql, postgre, sql server, oracle etc.

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